香港新浪網 MySinaBlog
燦榮 | 6th Apr 2009 | 管理學 | (54 Reads)

 

今時今日,任何公司或組織要生存,都要兼顧到全球化和應付未來的需要,但究竟那一個國家是最能夠前瞻性處事呢?

有美國的學者用了十五年,研究過來自61個地區,一萬七千過中層經理,指出今日香港的經理,前瞻的排名只屬中等,雖然領先內地或部份歐洲國家,但遠遠落後頭位的新加坡,第二位的瑞士,第三位的荷蘭和第四位的馬來西亞,即使是印度,菲律賓亦拋離香港。

研究同時發現,今時今日大公司的董事局,輕易更換行政總裁,比九五年多四倍之多。作者認為,這顯示大公司董事局越來越不相信行政總裁可以帶領公司進入未來。

雖然中國在有關的研究中,排名並不高,但我由個人的經驗發現,相關的調查不一定準確,因為中國地大物博,要找到有代表性的公司和經理,已經不是易事,假如以珠三角作為研究對象,我可以肯定,中國的排名會大幅提升。


燦榮 | 6th Apr 2009 | 管理學 | (36 Reads)

 

商場上決勝,不能沒有鬥心,但鬥心過強,卻為令人容易犯錯,哈佛商業評論一份論文指出,鬥心過高,有三大死穴,一是單一競爭對手,二是時間,三是眾人的目光。
學者以拍賣的現象做研究,發現在眾多對手,幾名對手和一名對手的組合下,單一對手令我們做成不理性決定最多,一九九九年在芝加哥,曾經有過這樣的網上加實物拍賣,140頭牛賣出了350萬美元,是原本估計價錢的七倍
時間是另一項足以令人失去判斷力的因素,越來越多資料顯示,拍賣臨近尾聲,正是一般決策者失去理智分析的時候,有高級行政人員反思過程亦發現,在早餐會有限時間做的決定,出錯機會亦高。  
研究同時顯示,經電子平台的拍賣的平均收益,比較真實的拍賣低,價錢相差達四倍,學者稱之為spotlight效應,即真實的拍賣,使人成為萬眾焦點,更容易輕率出價。
根據以上研究所得,學者認為,成功的領袖,即使不能完全排除所有競爭因素出現,但他們卻可以重新訂定公司的流程,令員工減少面對單一競爭對手,受時限所逼,或成為眾人焦點,如是者,做錯的機會自然減少。
 


燦榮 | 5th Apr 2009 | 管理學 | (38 Reads)
A man whom his doctors referred to as "Mr. Wright" was dying from cancer of the lymph nodes. Orange-size tumors had invaded his neck, groin, chest and abdomen, and his doctors had exhausted all available treatments. Nevertheless, Mr. Wright was confident that a new anticancer drug called Krebiozen would cure him, according to a 1957 report by psychologist Bruno Klopfer of the University of California, Los Angeles, entitled "Psychological Variables in Human Cancer."
Mr. Wright was bedridden and fighting for each breath when he received his first injection. But three days later he was cheerfully ambling around the unit, joking with the nurses. Mr. Wright's tumors had shrunk by half, and after 10 more days of treatment he was discharged from the hospital. And yet the other patients in the hospital who had received Krebiozen showed no improvement.
Over the next two months, however, Mr. Wright became troubled by press reports questioning the efficacy of Krebiozen and suffered a relapse. His doctors decided to lie to him: an improved, doubly effective version of the drug was due to arrive the next day, they told him. Mr. Wright was ecstatic. The doctors then gave him an injection that contained not one molecule of the drug — and he improved even more than he had the last time. Soon he walked out of the hospital symptom-free. He remained healthy until two months later, when, after reading reports that exposed Krebiozen as worthless, he died within days.
As Mr. Wright's experience illustrates, a patient's expectations and beliefs can greatly affect the course of an illness. When psychological factors tied to an inactive substance such as Krebiozen lead to recovery, doctors call the improvement a placebo effect.

燦榮 | 5th Apr 2009 | 管理學 | (12 Reads)
In recent decades reports have confirmed the efficacy of various sham treatments in nearly all areas of medicine. Placebos have helped alleviate pain, depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, inflammatory disorders and even cancer.
Placebo effects can arise not only from a conscious belief in a drug but also from subconscious associations between recovery and the experience of being treated — from the pinch of a shot to a doctor's white coat. Such subliminal conditioning can control bodily processes of which we are unaware, such as immune responses and the release of hormones.
Researchers have decoded some of the biology of placebo responses, demonstrating that they stem from active processes in the brain.

燦榮 | 5th Apr 2009 | 管理學 | (33 Reads)
For several decades, however, researchers have known that placebo effects can also arise from subconscious associations as opposed to overt beliefs. Stimuli that a patient links with feeling better or with physical improvement — say, a doctor's white lab coat, a stethoscope or the smell of an examining room — may induce physiological reactions even if a patient has no explicit faith in the treatment being given. That is, simply seeing a doctor holding a syringe can produce a placebo reaction if a patient has previously associated that scenario with feeling better. In such cases, the overall effect — improvement or even complete recovery — stems from a combination of the pharmacological action of the drug and the subconscious or conditioned response.

燦榮 | 5th Apr 2009 | 管理學 | (12 Reads)

one deiscovery by Xerox shattered conventional wisdom, Its totally satisfied customers were 6 times more likely to repurchase Xerox products over the next 18 months than its satisfied customers


燦榮 | 5th Apr 2009 | 管理學 | (13 Reads)
Some experts suggest replacing the reflex to postpone with time-stamped prescriptions for action. Psychologist Peter Gollwitzer of New York University and the University of Konstanz in Germany advises creating "implementation intentions," which specify where and when you will perform a specific behavior. So rather than setting a vague goal such as "I will get healthy," set one with its implementation, including timing, built in — say, "I will go to the health club at 7:30 A.M. tomorrow."
Setting such specific prescriptions does appear to inhibit the tendency to procrastinate. In 2008 psychologist Shane Owens and his colleagues at Hofstra University demonstrated that procrastinators who formed implementation intentions were nearly eight times as likely to follow through on a commitment than were those who did not create them. "You have to make a specific commitment to a time and place at which to act beforehand," Owens says. "That will make you more likely to follow through."