香港新浪網 MySinaBlog
燦榮 | 31st Jul 2013 | 通識--香港 | (110 Reads)

【香港商報訊】《蘋果日報》及《爽報》今年3月派記者到小欖精神病治療中心,訪問大角咀弒父母碎尸案的被告周×亮后,於兩報刊登報道,由於報道涉及有待刑事審訊的謀殺案,律政司日前入稟高等法院申請許可,要求法庭批准其控告兩報章的總編輯及出版商藐視法庭,并判處入獄或罰款。

    涉刊登候訊謀殺犯訪問

    律政司發言人表示,政府絕對尊重新聞自由,但律政司司長同時有責任維護公眾利益,確保任何面對刑事起訴的人士均有公平審訊,律政司司長認為今次有必要啟動藐視法庭的司法程序,從而維護刑事司法制度的莊嚴性。

    律政司入稟狀指,4名答辯人:《蘋果日報》總編輯張劍虹、《爽報》總編輯李彭基、及出版商蘋果日報有限公司與爽報有限公司,在今年3月20日的《蘋果日報》及《爽報》,及《蘋果日報》網頁內一段影片,報道一宗有待刑事審訊的謀殺案,構成屬於藐視法庭,要求判處4人入獄或罰款及支付律政司的訟費。

    訪問中的主角周×亮(29歲),涉嫌於今年3月1日與友人謝×麒(35歲),在大角咀福澤街38號海興大廈3樓一單位內,謀殺父親周×基(65歲)及母親蕭×兒(64歲),案件稍后將轉介高等法院審理。

    資深大律師湯家驊表示,訪問未開審謀殺案的被告,并作出報道,可能會影響日后抽選出來的陪審團對被告的看法,即使案件由單一法官審理,亦有可能影響司法程序,仍有機會被裁定藐視法庭。

    《蘋果日報》藐視法庭已有前科,2000年該報報道5歲男童被殺案的聆訊時,指被告疑有孌童癖,但庭上沒有此證供,導致法庭要解散陪審團,最后《蘋果日報》被判罰款10萬元,當時的總編輯葉一堅則毋須罰款及入獄。


燦榮 | 27th Jul 2013 | 管理學 | (16 Reads)
The Four Drives That Underlie Motivation

Because the four drives are hardwired into our brains, the degree to which they are satisfied directly affects our emotions and, by extension, our behavior. Let's look at how each one operates.

  1. The drive to acquire. We are all driven to acquire scarce goods that bolster our sense of well-being. We experience delight when this drive is fulfilled, discontentment when it is thwarted. This phenomenon applies not only to physical goods like food, clothing, housing, and money, but also to experiences like travel and entertainment -- not to mention events that improve social status, such as being promoted and getting a corner office or a place on the corporate board. The drive to acquire tends to be relative (we always compare what we have with what others possess) and insatiable (we always want more). That explains why people always care not just about their own compensation packages but about others' as well. It also illuminates why salary caps are hard to impose.
  2. The drive to bond. Many animals bond with their parents, kinship group, or tribe, but only humans extend that connection to larger collectives such as organizations, associations, and nations. The drive to bond, when met, is associated with strong positive emotions like love and caring and, when not, with negative ones like loneliness and anomie. At work, the drive to bond accounts for the enormous boost in motivation when employees feel proud of belonging to the organization and for their loss of morale when the institution betrays them. It also explains why employees find it hard to break out of divisional or functional silos: People become attached to their closest cohorts. But it's true that the ability to form attachments to larger collectives sometimes leads employees to care more about the organization than about their local group within it.
  3. The drive to comprehend. We want very much to make sense of the world around us, to produce theories and accounts -- scientific, religious, and cultural -- that make events comprehensible and suggest reasonable actions and responses. We are frustrated when things seem senseless, and we are invigorated, typically, by the challenge of working out answers. In the workplace, the drive to comprehend accounts for the desire to make a meaningful contribution. Employees are motivated by jobs that challenge them and enable them to grow and learn, and they are demoralized by those that seem to be monotonous or to lead to a dead end. Talented employees who feel trapped often leave their companies to find new challenges elsewhere.
  4. The drive to defend. We all naturally defend ourselves, our property and accomplishments, our family and friends, and our ideas and beliefs against external threats. This drive is rooted in the basic fight-or-flight response common to most animals. In humans, it manifests itself not just as aggressive or defensive behavior, but also as a quest to create institutions that promote justice, that have clear goals and intentions, and that allow people to express their ideas and opinions. Fulfilling the drive to defend leads to feelings of security and confidence; not fulfilling it produces strong negative emotions like fear and resentment. The drive to defend tells us a lot about people's resistance to change; it's one reason employees can be devastated by the prospect of a merger or acquisition -- an especially significant change -- even if the deal represents the only hope for an organization's survival. So, for example, one day you might be told you're a high performer and indispensable to the company's success, and the next that you may be let go owing to a restructuring -- a direct challenge, in its capriciousness, to your drive to defend. Little wonder that headhunters so frequently target employees during such transitions, when they know that people feel vulnerable and at the mercy of managers who seem to be making arbitrary personnel decisions. Each of the four drives we have described is independent; they cannot be ordered hierarchically or substituted one for another. You can't just pay your employees a lot and hope they'll feel enthusiastic about their work in an organization where bonding is not fostered, or work seems meaningless, or people feel defenseless. Nor is it enough to help people bond as a tight-knit team when they are underpaid or toiling away at deathly boring jobs. You can certainly get people to work under such circumstances -- they may need the money or have no other current prospects -- but you won't get the most out of them, and you risk losing them altogether when a better deal comes along. To fully motivate your employees, you must address all four drives.

燦榮 | 27th Jul 2013 | 心理 | (22 Reads)

Consider a woman who has just received a positive result from a mammogram and asks her doctor: Do I have breast cancer for sure, or what are the chances that I have the disease? In a 2007 continuing education course for gynecologists, Gigerenzer asked 160 of these practitioners to answer that question given the following information about women in the region:

  • The probability that a woman has breast cancer (prevalence) is 1 percent.
  • If a woman has breast cancer, the probability that she tests positive (sensitivity) is 90 percent.
  • If a woman does not have breast cancer, the probability that she nonetheless tests positive (false-positive rate) is 9 percent.

What is the best answer to the patient's query?

A. The probability that she has breast cancer is about 81 percent.

B. Out of 10 women with a positive mammogram, about nine have breast cancer.

C. Out of 10 women with a positive mammogram, about one has breast cancer.

D. The probability that she has breast cancer is about 1 percent.

Gynecologists could derive the answer from the statistics above, or they could simply recall what they should have known anyhow. In either case, the best answer is C; only about one out of every 10 women who test positive in screening actually has breast cancer. The other nine are falsely alarmed. Prior to training, most (60 percent) of the gynecologists answered 90 percent or 81 percent, thus grossly overestimating the probability of cancer. Only 21 percent of physicians picked the best answer — one out of 10.

Many physicians do not know the probabilities that a person has any disease given a positive screening test — that is, the positive predictive value of that test. Nor can they estimate it from conditional probabilities such as the test's sensitivity (the probability of testing positive in the presence of the disease) and the false-positive rate. Such innumeracy causes undue fear. Months after receiving a false-positive mammogram, one in two women reported considerable anxiety about mammograms and breast cancer, and one in four reported that this anxiety affected her daily mood and functioning.

Doctors would more easily be able to derive the correct probabilities if the statistics surrounding the test were presented as natural frequencies. For example:

  • Ten out of every 1,000 women have breast cancer.
  • Of these 10 women with breast cancer, nine test positive.
  • Of the 990 women without cancer, about 89 nonetheless test positive.

Thus, 98 women test positive, but only nine of those actually have the disease. After learning to translate conditional probabilities into natural frequencies, 87 percent of the gynecologists understood that one in 10 is the best answer. Similarly, psychologist Ros Bramwell of the University of Liverpool in England and his colleagues reported in 2006 that only one out of 21 obstetricians could correctly estimate the probability of an unborn child actually having Down syndrome given a positive test. When they were given the relevant natural frequencies, 13 out of 20 obstetricians arrived at the correct answer.


燦榮 | 20th Jul 2013 | 通識--中國 | (12 Reads)
〔中央社〕「南華早報」中文網13日刊登阿里巴巴集團創辦人馬雲專訪,馬雲提到「鄧小平在『六四』中做了不完美但當時是最正確的決定」。負責撰寫的記者劉怡表明這是「錯稿」,向馬雲道歉並辭職。

不過,南華早報今天發表聲明,對這篇報導的真實性「確信不疑」。

英國廣播公司(BBC)中文網今天報導,南早記者劉怡19日在臉書(facebook)發表聲明說,南早中文網13日刊登的馬雲專訪稿,並非她正式提交給報社的最終修訂稿,而是錯稿;錯版未能及時糾正,於是她行使編輯職責,置換正確版本。

劉怡說,「錯版中頗多語焉不詳……,但此舉被很多輿論放大並用作政治的過度解讀」;「造成社會大眾對馬雲的極大誤讀,以及造成輿論對『南華早報』一貫客觀中立立場的疑慮,本人向馬雲先生鄭重道歉,並辭去南華早報的工作。」

但南華早報否認劉怡說法,今天上午在官網發布聲明,「對該報導的真實性確信不疑」。

南早聲明,劉怡的報導在13日刊登一段時間後,未經授權擅自進入發稿系統,修改編輯已同意發出的內容,刪除馬雲對六四的言論,「這與採訪的錄音原始記錄不相符」。

南早隨後恢復原始文章,並暫停劉怡的工作,展開調查。調查期間,劉怡於19日提出辭呈。

這篇專訪全文仍刊登在南華早報中文網上,內容如下。

馬雲:一家公司的CEO,無論是阿里巴巴事件也好,無論是支付寶的拆分也好,你在這個當口上,好像鄧小平在「六四」當中,他作為國家最高的決策者,他要穩定,他必須要做這些殘酷的決定。這不是一個完美的決定,但這是一個最正確的決定,在當時是最正確的決定。任何時候,一個領導者是必須要做這樣的決定。混日子,那誰都可以不做決定的,那這就不叫管理了。

燦榮 | 20th Jul 2013 | 通識--個人成長 | (11 Reads)

如果我善良,別認為我軟弱。因為我明白:善良是本性,做人不能惡。

如果我忍讓,別認為我退縮。因為我明白:忍一忍風平浪靜,讓一讓天高海闊。

如果我寬容,別認為我怯懦。因為我明白:寬容是美德,美德沒有錯。

如果我饒恕,別認為我沒原則。因為我明白:得饒人時且饒人,不能把事做絕了。

如果我真誠,別嫌我話直說。因為我明白:違心奉承是應付,忠言逆耳是負責。

如果我重情,別笑話我執著。因為我明白:真情會溫暖心靈,真愛會鑄造永恆。

如果我厚道,別認為我笨拙。因為我明白:厚德能載物,助人能快樂。

如果我成功,請不要祝賀我。因為我明白:名利是一把雙刃劍,焉知福與禍。

如果我失敗,也不要貶低我。因為我明白:三年河東,三年河西,潮起潮又落。


燦榮 | 20th Jul 2013 | 通識--中國 | (8 Reads)

如果不積極運動,每10年可能喪失5%的肌肉組織; 把身體比做一台機器,“腿”就是提供動力的馬達。馬達不靈了,機器便會老化、運轉不良。人老後,不怕頭髮變白、皮膚鬆弛,怕的就是腿腳不靈便。在美國《預防》雜誌總結的長壽跡象中,“腿部肌肉有力”赫然在列。生活中也不難發現,長壽老人幾乎都步履穩健、行走如風。因此,只要養好雙腿,活過百歲的可能性便大大 提高。

運動使人長壽——可是全身壓力都在“腿”   

雙腿就像人體的承重牆。很少有人知道一個人50%的骨骼和50%的肌肉都在兩條腿上;人一生中70%的活動和能量消耗都要由它完成;人體最大、最結實的關節和骨頭也在其中。人年輕 時,大腿骨可以支撐起一輛小轎車;膝蓋則承受著9倍於體重的壓力;腿部肌肉也要經常與大地的引力進行搏鬥,保持緊張狀態。“所以說,堅實的骨骼、強壯的肌肉、靈活的關節形成了一個‘鐵三角’,承受人體最主要的重量。”衛生部老年醫學研究所原 所長 高芳 教授解釋說。

雙腿還是身體的交通樞紐。高芳說,兩條腿有人體50%的神經、50%的血管,流淌著50%的血液,是連接身體的大循環組織。中醫科主任劉德泉教授認為:“只有雙腿健康,經絡傳導才暢通,氣血才能順利送往各個器官,特別是心臟和消化系統。”可以說,腿部肌肉強勁的人必然有一顆強有力 的心臟。

由此,美國科學家認為,從走路便可判斷人的健康狀況。如果一個70歲—79歲的老人,一次可步行約400米,就說明其健康情況至少能讓他多活6年。老人每次走的距離越長,速度越快,走得越輕鬆,那麼他的壽命就越長。

衰老從腿開始!   

俗話說:樹老根先枯,人老腿先衰。 人老後,腿部和大腦間指令的準確性和傳導速度都有所下降,不像年輕時那麼默契。中醫科學院研究所裴卉博士解釋說,從出生到離世,腿每時每刻都在工作,如果不注意保護,自然就“年久失修”了。

美國政府老年問題專家夏克醫師表示,從20歲開始,如果不積極運動,每10年可能喪失5%的肌肉組織。同時,骨骼中有“鋼筋”之稱的鈣也會逐漸流失,人的骨關節,特別是髖 關節和膝關節會出問題,比如容易摔倒骨折。

高芳表示,老人骨 折容易導致股骨頭壞死,長期臥床,繼而引起褥瘡、尿路結石等 並發症,甚至誘發腦血栓。有15%的病人甚至會在骨折一年內死亡

“人老腿先知” 必知腿部衰老的報警信號:  

報警信號1:腿腳沒有原先靈便了。這是衰老的最早特徵。40歲後,很多人感到腿腳不靈活,稍微多走點路,就像腿上灌滿鉛,發酸發脹,上樓梯也 越來越費勁,沒爬幾層就氣喘吁吁。

報警信號2:做點事就腰酸腿疼。特別是中年女性,只要站的時間一長,就會覺得腰酸腿痛。咳嗽 時,腿還會出現放射性疼痛。如果小腿肚出現壓痛更要注意,說明腸胃已經開始“罷工”了。

報警信號3:走路變慢。不知不覺中,步速越來越慢。偶爾走快點,會覺得腿腳不聽使喚,過後會連續酸痛好多天,甚至出現肌肉萎縮的情況。

報警信號4:雙腿一側發涼。即使夏天也總感到小腿肚涼颼颼的,有時還覺得從臀部開始,到腳後跟,中間一 條線都涼涼的。這可能是血液循環不暢造成的,也可能和腰椎間盤病變有關。

報警信號5:抽筋次數增多。如果不是在運動後或因為受涼而抽筋,那就要注意了,這可能是骨質疏鬆的表現。有些人還會出現足跟疼痛,也必須引起注意。

報警信號6:腫脹。血液循環不好會導致腿脹,同時這也是心腦血管病或腎臟疾病患者常有的症狀。

報警信號7:靜脈曲張。女性更容易出現這種情況,20歲後就有可能發生。一旦腿上的血管突然非常清晰,彎彎曲曲像蛇一樣,說明腿部血管 出現了勞損。

報警信號8:髖膝關節疼痛。幾乎所有關節都會隨著年紀增大而變得脆弱,特別是髖、膝這兩處關 節。如果你發現在下樓梯、蹲下或跳躍時出現不適,甚至腿部有摩擦磨損、卡住動不了的感覺,說明關節已經急需保護了。

必學!這樣做能阻止衰老提前來!   

雖然人到中年後,腿會慢慢衰老,但養腿是一輩子的 事,從20多歲開始,就要注意保護。特別是現在的開車一族,以車代步慣了,腿部力量通常比常人差,只有養好腿,才能阻止衰老提前到來。

首先,注意保暖,穿寬鬆的褲子,促進血液循環。 劉德泉說,千萬別讓腿部受涼,平時常用熱水泡泡腳, 使氣血能順利到達人的上身,維持機體平衡。同時,老年人要穿寬鬆的褲子和鞋,鞋跟23公分比較合適。此外,臨睡前拿個小枕頭墊墊腿,也能促進血液暢通。

其次,多曬太陽。不僅有利於保暖,還可以促進體內維生素D的形成,避免雙腿鈣流失,有效預防骨質疏鬆。  

最後,就是要多運動。幾位專家教給大家一套從上到下的養腿保健操。

髖部:每天堅持背部靠牆站立,腳慢慢往前走,然後再退回,保持一個平穩狀態。此時背的下部要始終緊貼牆壁。

膝蓋:雙膝並攏,屈膝微微下蹲,雙手置於膝蓋上,先順時針方向旋轉30次,再逆時針旋轉30次,扭完雙膝後,再隨意活動一下肢體。

腿:老年人可選擇慢跑、游泳、打太極等有氧運動,最好每天能堅持健走45分鐘。中醫醫院老年病中心劉征堂教授建議,常揉腿肚:彎腰或是坐著讓雙腿下垂,用雙手同時輕輕拍打雙腿,由上至下 反覆拍打數遍,再用雙手握拳置於雙大腿和腿肚處,旋轉揉動數 十次。

腳踝:多踮踮腳後跟,建議抬起腳後跟再繃緊腿,每次保持510秒。

腳趾:兩腿伸直,低頭,身體向前彎,以兩手扳足趾關節各2030次,能鍛鍊腳力,防止腿足軟弱無力。


燦榮 | 17th Jul 2013 | 通識--中國 | (31 Reads)

【馬雲:我最遺憾的錯誤】01年,我犯了一個錯誤,我告訴我的18位共同創業同仁,他們只能做小組經理,而所有的副總裁都得從外面聘請。現在十年過去了,我從外面聘請的人才都走了,而我之前曾懷疑過其能力的人都成了副總或董事。我相信兩個信條:態度比能力重要,選擇同樣也比能力重要!

【馬雲:不能統一人的思想 但可以統一人的目標】千萬不要相信你能統一人的思想,那是不可能的。 30%的人永遠不可能相信你,不要讓你的同事爲你幹活,而讓他們爲我們的共同目標幹活,團結在一個共同的目標下,要比團結在一個人周圍容易的多。

【馬雲提醒:細節好的人格局一般都差】1.有人覺得我牛,6分鍾說服了孫正義,其實是他說服了我。見孫正義之前,我在矽谷至少被拒絕了40次。2.做企業贏在細節,輸在格局。3.格局,“格”是人格,“局”是胸懷,細節好的人格局一般都差,格局好的人從來不重細節,兩個都幹好,那叫太有才!

【馬雲:領導比員工多什麽?】 領導永遠不要跟下屬比技能,下屬肯定比你強;如果不比你強,說明你請錯人了。1)要比眼光:比他看得遠;2)要比胸懷:男人的胸懷是委屈撐大的,要能容人所不容;3)要比實力:抗失敗的能力比他強;一個優秀的領導人的素質就是眼光、胸懷和實力。

【馬雲:領導別當勞模】當幹部之前你一定要讓他學習怎樣當幹部,有很多幹部是勞模幹部,這類人很勤奮,如果你把他升爲經理,他覺得領導喜歡我這樣當經理,凡是帶頭幹,但他卻不能培養激勵下屬。真正優秀的領導是能讓下屬成爲勞模的人,而不是自己當勞模。

【馬雲:中國商人千萬別在“紅道”上混】人一輩子要明白錢和權兩個東西是絕對不要碰在一起,當了官永遠不要想有錢,當了商人千萬別想權;錢和權這兩個東西碰在一起就是炸藥和雷管碰在一起,必然要爆炸;胡雪岩悲哀就悲在于他是紅頂商人;國商人千萬別在紅道上混。

【馬雲:年輕人必須思考的4大問題】1.什麽是失敗?放棄就是最大的失敗。2.什麽叫堅強?經曆許多磨難、委屈、不爽,你才知道什麽叫堅強。3.你的職責是什麽?比別人多勤奮一點、多努力一點、多一點理想,這就是你的職責。4.傻瓜用嘴講話,聰明人用腦袋講話,智者用心講話。

【馬雲:人生在世在做人,不是做事】我跟自己講我們到這個世界上不是來工作的,我們是來享受人生的,我們是來做人不是做事。如果一輩子都做事的話,忘了做人,將來一定會後悔。不管事業多成功、多偉大、多了不起,記住我們到這個世界就是享受經曆這個人生的體驗。忙著做事一定會後悔。

【馬雲:工作不要太認真 快樂就行】我特討厭認真工作的人,工作不要太認真,工作快樂就行,因爲只有快樂讓你創新,認真只會更多的KPI更多的壓力、更多的埋怨,真正把自己變成機器,我們不管多偉大、多勤奮、多痛苦,永遠記住做一個實實在在、舒舒服服的人,因爲人才是讓我們最美。

【馬雲:高手的競爭論】1.一定要爭得你死我活的商戰是最愚蠢的2.眼睛中全是敵人,外面就全是敵人。3.競爭的時候不要帶仇,帶仇恨一定失敗。4.競爭樂趣就像下棋一樣,你輸了,我們再來過,兩個棋手不能打架。5.領導者的胸懷,就是被冤枉撐大的。6.真正做企業是沒有仇人的,心中無敵,天下無敵。

【馬雲:胸懷是委屈撐大的】1)男人的胸懷是委屈撐大的; 2)明白自己有什麽,明白自己要什麽,明白自己放棄什麽;3賺錢只是結果,不是我的目的;4)心中無敵就無敵于天下;5我們缺的不是鈣而是愛。

【馬雲:別把抱怨當習慣】人是退化最嚴重的動物。跟獸比人很“弱肢”,和狗比人很“聞盲”,但人類“進化”了抱怨。偶爾爲之無大礙,但當抱怨成習慣,就如喝海水,喝的越多渴得越厲害。最後發現,走在成功路上的都是些不抱怨的“傻子們”。世界不會記得你說了什麽,但一定不會忘記你做了什麽!

【馬雲給初創企業者的忠告】1、大家看不清的機會,才是真正的機會。2、讓員工笑著幹活。3、客戶第一、員工第二、股東第三。4、少聽成功學,多聽失敗學。5、搶在變化之前先變。6、忘掉money,忘掉賺錢。7、小聰明不如傻堅持。8心態決定姿態,姿態決定狀態。

【馬雲談創業】:1.一個好的東西往往是說不清楚的,說得清楚的往往不是好東西!2.創業要找最合適的人,不一定要找最成功的人。3.這世界最不可靠的東西就是關系。4.免費是世界上最昂貴的東西。5.今天很殘酷,明天更殘酷,後天很美好。

【馬雲“四不”創業智慧】1、創業最怕就是看不見,看不起,看不懂,跟不上;2、看不見對手在哪裏,看不起對手,看不懂對手爲什麽可以變得那麽強,然後就跟不上了;3即使對手很弱小,也一定要把對方看的很強大,即使對手很強大,也不一定要把自己看的很弱小。

【馬雲當你決定要創業時】便意味著 1、沒有了穩定的收入;2、沒有了請假的權利;3沒有了得紅包的機會。然而卻更意味著:1、收入不再受限制;2時間運用更有效;3、手心向下不求人,想法若不同,結果便不同;選擇不一樣,生活才變樣。