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燦榮 | 21st Nov 2010 | 通識--科技.環保 | (26 Reads)
May 2009Last year I showed these two slides so that demonstrate that the arctic ice cap, which for most of the last three million years has been the size of the lower 48 states, has shrunk by 40 percent. But this understates the seriousness of this particular problem because it doesn't show the thickness of the ice. The arctic ice cap is, in a sense, the beating heart of the global climate system. It expands in winter and contracts in summer. The next slide I show you will be a rapid fast forward of what's happened over the last 25 years. The permanent ice is marked in red. As you see, it expands to the dark blue. That's the annual ice in winter. And it contracts in summer. The so-called permanent ice, five years old or older, you can see is almost like blood, spilling out of the body here. In 25 years it's gone from this, to this. This is a problem because the warming heats up the frozen ground around the arctic ocean where there is a massive amount of frozen carbon which, when it thaws, is turned into methane by microbes. Compared to the total amount of global warming pollution in the atmosphere, that amount could double if we cross this tipping point. Already in some shallow lakes in Alaska methane is actively bubbling up out of the water. Professor Katey Walter from the University of Alaska went out with another team to another shallow lake last winter. Video: Whoa! (Laughter) Al Gore: She's okay. The question is whether we will be. And one reason is, this enormous heat sink heats up Greenland from the north. This is an annual melting river. But the volumes are much larger than ever. This is the Kangerlussuaq River in southwest Greenland. If you want to know how sea level rises from land-base ice melting this is where it reaches the sea. These flows are increasing very rapidly. At the other end of the planet, Antarctica the largest mass of ice on the planet. Last month scientists reported the entire continent is now in negative ice balance. And west Antarctica cropped up on top some under-sea islands, is particularly rapid in its melting. That's equal to 20 feet of sea level, as is Greenland. In the Himalayas, the third largest mass of ice, at the top you see new lakes, which a few years ago were glaciers. 40 percent of all the people in the world get half of their drinking water from that melting flow. In the Andes, this glacier is the source of drinking water for this city. The flows have increased. But when they go away, so does much of the drinking water. In California there has been a 40 percent decline in the Sierra snowpack. This is hitting the reservoirs. And the predictions, as you've read, are serious. This drying around the world has lead to a dramatic increase in fires. And the disasters around the world have been increasing at an absolutely extraordinary and unprecedented rate. Four times as many in the last 30 years as in the previous 75. This is a completely unsustainable pattern. If you look at in the context of history you can see what this is doing. In the last five years we've added 70 million tons of CO2 every 24 hours -- 25 million tons every day to the oceans. Look carefully at the area of the eastern Pacific, from the Americas, extending westward, and on either side of the Indian subcontinent, where there is a radical depletion of oxygen in the oceans. The biggest single cause of global warming, along with deforestation, which is 20 percent of it, is the burning of fossil fuels. Oil is a problem, and coal is the most serious problem. The United States is one of the two largest emitters, along with China. And the proposal has been to build a lot more coal plants. But we're beginning to see a sea change. Here are the ones that have been cancelled in the last few years with some green alternatives proposed. (Applause) However there is a political battle in our country. And the coal industries and the oil industries spent a quarter of a billion dollars in the last calendar year promoting clean coal, which is an oxymoron. That image reminded me of something. (Laughter) Around Christmas, in my home in Tennessee, a billion gallons of coal sludge was spilled. You probably saw it on the news. This, all over the country, is the second largest waste stream in America. This happened around Christmas. One of the coal industry's ads around Christmas was this one. Video: ♪♫ Frosty the coal man is a jolly, happy soul. He's abundant here in America, and he helps our economy grow. Frosty the coal man is getting cleaner everyday. He's affordable and adorable, and workers keep their pay. Al Gore: This is the source of much of the coal in West Virginia. The largest mountaintop miner is the head of Massey Coal. Video: Don Blankenship: Let me be clear about it. Al Gore, Nancy Pelosi, Harry Reid, they don't know what they're talking about. Al Gore: So the Alliance for Climate Protection has launched two campaigns. This is one of them, part of one of them. Video: Actor: At COALergy we view climate change as a very serious threat to our business. That's why we've made it our primary goal to spend a large sum of money on an advertising effort to help bring out and complicate the truth about coal. The fact is, coal isn't dirty. We think it's clean -- smells good, too. So don't worry about climate change. Leave that up to us. (Laughter) Video: Actor: Clean coal, you've heard a lot about it. So let's take a tour of this state-of-the-art clean coal facility. Amazing! The machinery is kind of loud. But that's the sound of clean coal technology. And while burning coal is one of the leading causes of global warming, the remarkable clean coal technology you see here changes everything. Take a good long look, this is today's clean coal technology. Al Gore: Finally the positive alternative meshes with our economic challenge and our national security challenge. Video: Narrator: America is in crisis, the economy, national security, the climate crisis. The thread that links them all, our addiction to carbon based fuels, like dirty coal and foreign oil. But now there is a bold new solution to get us out of this mess. Repower America with 100 percent clean electricity, within 10 years. A plan to put America back to work, make us more secure, and help stop global warming. Finally, a solution that's big enough to solve our problems. Repower America. Find out more. Al Gore: This is the last one. Video: Narrator: It's about repowering America. One of the fastest ways to cut our dependence on old dirty fuels that are killing our planet. Man: Future's over here. Wind, sun, a new energy grid. Man # 2: New investments to create high paying jobs. Narrator: Repower America. It's time to get real. Al Gore: There is an old African proverb that says, "If you want to go quickly, go alone. If you want to go far, go together." We need to go far, quickly. Thank you very much. (Applause)May 2009去年我展示了這兩張投影片,並且 展示了北極冰冠 是在三百萬年內所形成的 已有美國本土48州的大小(意指不含夏威夷及阿拉斯加) 但如今面積已經大幅縮小40% 但這仍然低估了我們實際所面臨問題的嚴重性 因為這沒有展現出冰層的厚度 北極的冰冠, 就像是 全球氣候系統中不斷跳動的心臟 它在冬天擴大,在夏天縮小 在下一章投影片中我將要展示一個 在最近25年內急速變化的事實 永凍層標示成紅色 如你所見,它擴張變成深藍色 那就是每年冬天的冰層 並且在夏天的時候縮小 這就是永凍層,即形成已五年或更久 你可以發現這就像血液一樣 流散在身體各處 在這25年內,它從這樣,變成這樣. 這就是暖化所造成的問題 它加熱了北極海周圍的冰 那是十分大量的凝固態炭(指乾冰) 也就是說,當冰層溶化時,這些碳會經由微生物的作用轉化成甲烷 和大氣層中所有造成全球暖化的氣體總量做比較 暖化氣體的總量可能加倍如果我們排放的二氧化碳超過這個頂點 這樣的現象已經發生在阿拉斯加一些淺水湖 烷不斷地自湖水中湧出 阿拉斯加大學的瓦特教授(Pro. Katey Walter) 在去年冬天時和另外一個研究團隊去另一個淺水湖 影片: !!() 她沒事. 重點是我們會變成如何? 另外一個理由是,這個巨大的熱水坑 正不斷地加溫北部的格陵蘭島 這是每年溶冰水所形成的河 但這流量比以往都還要大很多很多 這是格陵蘭島南部的Kangerlussuaq 如果你想從溶化的大陸冰層 知道海平面會升到多高 這就是溶冰水進入海裡的景象 這些水流量正在急遽地增加 在地球的另一端,南極 也是地球上最大的冰層 科學家回報說,上個月整個冰層的量 已經呈現負成長 在南極西方,有些海平面下的島頂端的冰層像被剪過一樣 正在急速地溶化 這相當於海平面上升20英尺,就如同格陵蘭島 在世界第三大的冰層,喜馬拉雅山脈 你所看到這些山頂的湖,幾年前是冰河 全世界有40%的人口 都從這溶冰水中獲得日常一半的飲用水 在安地斯山脈,這裡的冰河 是這個城市飲用水的來源 這水流量已經增加 但當這些水消失時,飲用水也會不見 在加州Sierra, 積雪場面積已縮小40% 這就像是對蓄水池加熱 如你所知,預測結果顯示這樣後果會嚴重 如此全球性的乾旱將導致 火災發生次數戲劇性地增加 並且在全球各地所發生的災難 也絕對是以非比尋常 並且史無前例速率的大量增加 將會是近三十年來所發生次數的四倍 是過去七十五年所發生的總量 這是個令人完全無法承受的景象 如果你回頭看看歷史上的過往 你會發現我們正在所經歷的是什麼 在過去五年間 我們已經增加了了七千萬噸的二氧化碳排放量 每二十四小時 每天排放兩千五百萬噸的二氧化碳到海裡 仔細看看太平洋得東邊海域 從美洲,一直延伸到西邊 到印度次大陸的兩側 都有海域極度缺氧(死亡海域)的現象發生 造成全球暖化最重要的的原因, 其中20%是因為不斷砍伐森林,作用和直接燒石油煤炭一樣 燃燒石油是一個問題,但是燃燒煤炭更嚴重 美國是兩大燃煤消費國之一 也是最大的排放國,和中國大陸並列 而且還有更多燃煤的火力發電廠的興建計劃 然而我們已經開始看到海平面的變化 這是近幾年內已被取消的興建計劃 取而代之的是一些綠色替代能源計劃 (拍手) 然而,在我們國家 有一場政治角力 那些煤碳及石油工業 在去年的選舉中撒了兩千五百 推銷所謂的"淨煤" 這無疑是掛羊頭賣狗肉 那景象讓我想起了一些事 ()煤碳:新的駱駝老喬? (駱駝牌香煙的所創的卡通人物, 使青少年抽煙人口大幅增加) 大約在聖誕節時,在我田納西的家中 有十億加侖的煤廢水外洩出來 你或許已經看過這則新聞了 這條流經全國的河,成為美國西部第二大的污水河 這件事發生在聖誕節附近 一個燃煤工業在聖誕節附近所播放的廣告如下: 影片:♪♫雪白煤碳先生是個快樂的精靈 它在美國產量豐富 並且幫助我們的經濟成長 雪白的煤碳先生每天都越來越乾淨 它物美價廉,讓工人們有薪水領 高爾:這是西維吉尼雅大部份的煤炭來源 在以山巔移除的方式開礦的就是梅西礦業的領導人 布蘭肯席普(梅西礦業的執行長):讓我明白的說. 高爾 皮洛西(美國衆議院議長),瑞德(聯邦參議院多數黨領袖),他們都不知道自己再胡說些什麼(三人都在推動環保能源法案) 高爾: 所以,氣候保護聯盟(高爾發起的環保團體) 已經發起這兩場戰役 這就是其中之一,是一部份 影片:演員:[碳能源]我們已知道氣候變遷的嚴重性 威脅著我們的商機 這就是為什麼我們將氣候變遷設為我們的首要目標 也就是要花一大筆錢 在廣告及宣傳,好讓大家知道且明瞭 有關